Developing POP-Java applications

The POP model is a suitable programming model for large heterogeneous distributed environments but it should also remain as close as possible to traditional object oriented programming. Parallel objects of the POP model generalize sequential objects, keep the properties of object oriented programming (data encapsulation, inheritance and polymorphism) and add new properties.

The POP-Java language is an extension of Java that implements the POP model. Its syntax remains as close as possible to standard Java so that Java programmer can easily learn it and existing Java libraries can be parallelized without much effort. Changing a sequential Java application into a distributed parallel application is rather straightforward. POP-Java is also very close to POP-C++ so that POP programmer can use both systems easily.

Parallel objects are created using parallel classes. Any object that instantiates a parallel class is a parallel object and can be executed remotely. To help the POP-C++ runtime to choose a remote machine to execute the remote object, programmers can add object description information to each constructor of the parallel object. In order to create parallel execution, POP-Java offers new semantics for method invocations. These new semantics are indicated thanks to new POP-Java keywords. This chapter describes the syntax of the POP-Java programming language and presents the main tools available in the POP-Java system.

Parallel objects

POP-Java parallel objects are a generalization of sequential objects. Unless the term sequential object is explicitly specified, a parallel object is simply referred as an object in the rest of this chapter.

Create a parallel class

Developing POP-Java application mainly consists of designing an implementing parallel classes. The declaration of a parallel class is the same as a standard Java class declaration, but it has to be annotated with the annotation @POPClass. The parallel class can extend another parallel class but not a sequential class.

Simple parallel class declaration

public class MyParallelClass {
   // Implementation

Parallel class declaration with an inheritance

public class MyParallelClass extends AnotherParallelClass {
   // Implementation

As Java allows only single inheritance, a parallel class can only inherit from one other parallel class. The Java language also imposes that the file including the parallel class has the same name than the parallel class.

Parallel classes are very similar to standard Java classes. As POP-Java has some different behavior, some restrictions applied to the parallel classes:

  • All attributes in a parallel class must be protected or private
  • The objects do not access any global variable
  • A parallel class does not contain any static methods or non final static attributes

Creation and destruction

The object creation process consists of several steps: locating a resource satisfying the object description (resource discovery), transmitting and executing the object code, establishing the communication, transmitting the constructor arguments and finally invoking the corresponding object constructor. Failures on the object creation will raise an exception to the caller. Exception handling will describe the POP-Java exception mechanism.

As a parallel object can be accessible concurrently from multiple distributed locations (shared object), destroying a parallel object should be carried out only if there is no other reference to the object. POP-Java manages parallel objects’ life time by an internal reference counter. A counter value of 0 will cause the object to be physically destroyed.

Syntactically, the creation of a parallel object is identical to the one in Java. A parallel object can be created by using the standard new operator of Java.

Parallel class methods

Like sequential classes, parallel classes contain methods and attributes. Method can be public or private but attribute must be either protected or private. For each public method, the programmer must define the invocation semantics. These semantics, described in Invocations semantics, are specified by an annotation.

  • Interface side: These semantics affect the caller side. * sync: Synchronous invocation. * async: Asynchronous invocation.
  • Object side: These semantics affect the order of incoming method calls on the object. * seq: Sequential invocation * conc: Concurrent invocation * mutex: Mutual exclusive invocation

The combination of the interface and object-side semantics defines the overall semantics of a method. There are 6 possible combinations of the interface and object-side semantics, resulting in 6 annotations:


The following code example shows a synchronous concurrent method that returns an int value:

public int myMethod(){
   return myIntValue;

A method declared as asynchronous must have its return type set to void. Otherwise, the compiler will raise an error.

Object description

Object descriptions are used to describe the resource requirements for the execution of an object. Object descriptions are declared along with parallel object constructor declarations. The object description can be declared in a static way as an annotation of the constructor, or in a dynamic way as an annotation on the parameters of the constructor. First an example of a static annotation:

public MyObject(){

and now a dynamic example:

public MyObject(@POPConfig(Type.URL) String host){

Currently only the url annotation is implemented, allowing to specify the URL/IP of the machine on which the POP-Object is executed. If the annotation is not set, POP-Java will use the POP-C++ jobmanager to find a suitable machine.

Data marshaling and IPOPBase

When calling a remote method, the arguments must be transferred to the object being called (the same happens for the return value and the exception). In order to operate with different memory spaces and different architectures, the data is marshaled into a standard format prior to be sent to remote objects. All data is serialized (marshaled) at the caller side an deserialized (unmarshaled) at the remote side.

With POP-Java all primitive types, primitive type arrays and parallel classes can be passed without any trouble to another parallel object. This mechanism is transparent for the programmer.

If the programmer wants to pass a special object to or between parallel classes, this object must implement the IPOPBase interface from the POP-Java library. This library is located in the installation directory (POPJAVA_LOCATION/JarFile/popjava.jar). By implementing this interface, the programmer will have to override the two following methods:

public boolean deserialize(Buffer buffer) {
   return true;

public boolean serialize(Buffer buffer) {
   return true;

These methods will be called by the POP-Java system when an argument of this type needs to be serialized or deserialized. As the object will be reconstructed on the other side and after the values will be set to it by the deserialize method, any class implementing the IPOPBase interface must have a default constructor.

The code below shows a full example of a class implementing the IPOPBase interface:

import popjava.buffer.Buffer;
import popjava.dataswaper.IPOPBase;

public class MyComplexType implements IPOPBase {
   private int theInt;
   private double theDouble;
   private int[] someInt;

   public MyComplexType(){}

   public MyComplexType(int i, double d, int[] ia){
      theInt = i;
      theDouble = d;
      someInt = ia;

   public boolean deserialize(Buffer buffer) {
      theInt = buffer.getInt();
      theDouble = buffer.getDouble();
      int size = buffer.getInt();
      someInt = buffer.getIntArray(size);
      return true;

   public boolean serialize(Buffer buffer) {
      return true;

POP-Java behavior

This section aims to explain the difference between the standard Java behavior and the POP-Java behavior.

As in standard Java, the primitive types will not be affected by any manipulation inside a method as they are passed by value and not by reference. Objects passed as arguments tho methods will only be affected if the method semantic is “Synchronous”. In fact, POP-Java serializes the method arguments to pass them on the object-side. Once the method work is done, the arguments are serialized once again to be sent back to the interface-side. If the method semantic is “Synchronous”, the interface-side will deserialize the arguments and replace the local ones by the deserialized arguments. If the method semantic is “Asynchronous”, the interface-side will not wait for any answer from the object-side. It’s important to understand this small difference when developing POP-Java application.

Exception handling

Errors can be efficiently handled using exceptions. Instead of handling each error separately based on an error code returned by a function call, exceptions allow the programmer to filter and centrally manage errors through several calling stacks. When an error is detected inside a certain method call, the program can throw an exception that will be caught somewhere else.

The implementation of exception in non-distributed applications, where all components run within the same memory address space is fairly simple. The compiler just need to pass a pointer to the exception from the place where it is thrown to the place where it is caught. However, in distributed environments where each component is executed in a separated memory address space (and the data is represented differently due to heterogeneity), the propagation of exception back to a remote component is complex.


Figure 1: Exception handling example

POP-Java supports transparent exception propagation. Exceptions thrown in a parallel object will be automatically propagated back to the remote caller (Figure 1). The current POP-Java version allows the following types of exceptions:

  • Exception
  • POPException

The invocation semantics of POP-Java affect the propagation of exceptions. For the moment, only synchronous methods can propagate the exception. Asynchronous methods will not propagate any exception to the caller. POP-Java current behavior is to abort the application execution when such an exception occurs.